I feel really strongly about mantle plumes…

Ever since the plume hypothesis was proposed by Jason Morgan, geologists have jumped at the opportunity to use his theory to describe other previously misunderstood geological events. Mantle plumes promised a deeper understanding of the earth’s interior composition and helped geologists to find an absolute direction and speed of tectonic plates. Central to Morgan’s hypothesis was the idea that mantle plumes are the source of midplate tectonic activity often referred to as hot spots.

While mantle plumes were a convenient explanation for multiple geological processes, apparent evidence to the contrary began to pop up. Absolute motions of different plates did not match up, and plumes are hard to detect in tomographic images of the mantle. Scientists recently discovered a series of midplate volcanoes near Japan that cannot have been formed by mantle plumes because of their location near to the subduction zone of the Pacific Plate. This evidence definitely illuminates some underlying issues with Morgan’s hypothesis, but in my opinion, it does not completely discredit his theory.

These scientists have proved that at least one chain of “hot spot” volcanoes was not produced by a mantle plume; however, jumping to any conclusions that this disproves Morgan’s entire hypothesis is too rash. The interior dynamics of the earth have proven to be difficult to unravel. Although it is hard to detect plumes in tomographic images of the mantle, evidence of upwelling material from the lower to upper mantle can be found underneath some hot spots when advanced techniques are used. Just because one mountain range that we previously believed to be created by mantle plume activity has been shown instead to be created by a crack in an oceanic plate does not mean that every midplate mountain range is now under suspicion.

Instead, I believe that the earth continually proves to be more complicated than we imagine. Mantle plumes likely do exist; there is too much evidence to be ignored. Might we be discovering new processes that result in midplate tectonic activity? Yes, and it is exciting! Geologists do not need to choose between one explanation and another. Instead, they should recognize the limit of our knowledge and celebrate every discovery that adds to this body of knowledge.

I feel really strongly about mantle plumes…

Mah Birfday


It’s my birthday! Of course I woke up to wind and pouring rain. I had to amend my entire day’s plans accordingly. Geraldine was so sweet as to leave me a box of cat chocolates for my birthday. I ate 5 of them. I braved the rain and blustery cold wind to meet Aly at the Künsthistoriches. I finally finished walking around the 2nd half of the painting gallery. I love that museum a lot and it has been a place of refuge the past few months. I finally bought Dad and Carson their t-shirts, found out I received an A in Dr. O’s class, and finally went to Demmers Teehaus (the most famous Viennese teahouse) and bought myself a teapot, cup, and saucer for my birthday present to myself. And 3 different kinds of tea. Hooray! Originally, we were supposed to go to Schönbrunn for a picnic but because of the rain, we decided to eat at the Outreach Center instead. Except when we arrived it wasn’t open yet. To Aly’s house we went! We gorged ourselves on salami/ham/gouda sandwiches, sour cream and onion Pringles, BBQ chips, grapes, raspberries, tomatoes, chocolate chip cookies, cherry lemonade, Marillenkrapfen, and to top it all off, cake from Aida. I then headed over to Oliver’s. I missed him! We just chatted and caught up. He gave me Mozart chocolates. Finally, I went over to Kristin’s with Jeanny and we watched Tangled. It didn’t really feel like my birthday, but it was still a good day.


-woke up at 6 to do laundry and work out
-three bowls of frosted flakes for breakfast
-whipped out the Schade paper in 45 minutes
-roses surprise
-dinner at Spaghettim in WestJ with Lindsey, Kirstin, Tyler, Jane, and Meg
-called Mom and Dad (who forgot it was my birthday!)
-watched Tangled
-maybe I’m not interested in Tyler but mostly I feel like we should keep plodding along and just become better and better friends
-talked with roomies and now I’m going to sleep


I’m feeling 22!!! Haha. I started the day at Waffle Love with Elizabeth, Abby, Madalyn, and Elise. Then Abby, Aly, Jordan, Brad, and I went to see the new Captain America movie which was AWESOME. Then I came home, ate a ton of Kit-Kats, read Words of Radiance, and took a nap. Abby, Aly, Answley and I then went to Color Me Mine and I made an awesome “All the Brachiopods” mug. And to finish off the day, Jordan and I watched Tangled. Perfect day, much?!?

Mah Birfday


Season: spring
Color: green
Candy: Kit-Kat bars or Cadbury eggs
Book: Ender’s Game by Orson Scott Card
BYU Class: History of Music or Joseph Smith and the Restoration
Planet: Uranus
Animal: elephant
Song: Lilikoi Boy by Jónsi
Number: 12
Movie: The Way, Way Back
Holiday: Christmas
Food: chicken divan, or maybe toast, or maybe hummus
Ice Cream: salted caramel
City: Vienna
Musical Artist: Ingrid Michaelson
Store: Anthropologie
Board game: Settlers of Catan
Pixar movie: Ratatouille
Piece of Jewelry: the necklace that Ella gave me or my watch
Female Celebrity: Kate Middleton
TV Show: Parks and Rec
Time of Day: early morning
Perfume: Catherine Maladrino
Fruit: pineapple
Hymn: Prayer is the Soul’s Sincere Desire
Mode of Transportation: boat
iPhone App: Weather
Topic of Conversation: grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary
Possession: my journals
National Park: the Redwoods
Thing to Study: world religions
Weather: pouring rain and thunderstorms
Piece of Clothing: BYU Nike running shorts